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Wednesday, December 23, 2009


DA Latin Glossary (in order of appearance)

Ring Poem

Anulus, i- m. the ring

Elbicus, a, um- Elven

Nanus, a, um- Dwarven here dwarf

Hypogeum, i- crypt, vault, underground chamber/room here a hall

Saxum, i- n. stone

Mortalis, e- mortal

damno, damnare, damnavi, damnatus- to damn here to be doomed

Ater, a, um- dark, obscure

solium, i- n. throne

Mordor, is- m. Mordor

operio, operire, operui, opertus- to cover (over), overspread, conceal

Tenebrae, arum- f. pl. darkness

vincio, vincire- to bind, to confine

Book 1

Chapter 1

convivium, i - n. party (feast)

Magister, i – m. here Master or Mr.

Bilbo, nis- m. Bilbo

Bursonus, i- m. Baggins, in pl. Bagginses

habito, habitare, habitavi, habitatus- to live (in), to inhabit, to stay

Bursa Ima, ae- m. Bag End- ae also = locative case

nuntiare- to announce

celebratare- to celebrate

egregrius, a, um- special, distinguished

magnificentia, ae- f. magnificence

Hobbitovicus, i- m. Hobbiton

perdives- very rich

insolitus, a, um- strange, queer

spectaculum, i- n. spectacle, sight, show

Pagus, i- m. the Shire

notabiliter e conspectu aberat- he had disappeared remarkably

notabilis, e- remarkable

insperatus, a, um- unexpected, unhoped for

popularis, e – popular

neglegens- from neglego- to neglect

Collis, is- m. the Hill

Cuniculus, i- m. a tunnel, an underground passage, a rabbit, a cony

farcio, farcire, farsi, fartum- to fill, to stuff full

divitae, arum- f. pl. riches, treasure

prorogo, prorogare, prorogavi, prorogatus- to prolong

vigor, is- m. vigor

extendo, extendere, extendi, extenditus- to continue, to extend, to stretch out

afficio, afficere, affeci, affectus- to exert an influence on the body or mind here to have an effect

conservo, conservare, conservavi, conservatus- to preserve, to keep, to maintain

verbum, verbi- n. here, phrase

quatio, quatere, quassi, quassum- to shake

nimius, a, um- here too much, excessive

iniustus, a, um- unfair, unjust

iuventus, utis- f. youth, the prime of life

sempiternus, a, um- continual, everlasting

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutum- here to pay for

molestus, a, um- burdensome, troublesome

benignus, a, um- generous

condono, condonare- here to overlook (one’s faults)

novitas, atis - f. strangeness

propinquus, a, um- relative

interviso, intervisere, intervisi, intervisum- here to visit from time to time

Sackvilla, ae- f. Sackville

studiosus, a, um- devoted

admiror, admirari- to admire

familiaris, e- belonging to a family

pauper, eris - poor

levis, e- here unimportant

familiaris, is- m. a familiar friend

patruelis, e- a cousin (on the father’s side)

consobrinus, i- m. male cousin (on the mother’s side)

invenis, is- younger

adolseco, adolsecere- to grow up

adolescens, tis- young

Frodo, nis- m. Frodo

heres, heredis- c. heir

facere heredem- idiom, to make one a heir

redigo, redigere- to reduce to a specific state

inritus, a, um- void

ad inritum redacti sunt- lit. they were made void here they were crushed

mensis, is- m. month

commodus, a, um – convenient, satisfactory here comfortable

tweenus, i - m. tween

immaturus, a, um- immature here irresponsible

pueritia, ae- f. childhood, boyhood

aditus, us- m. the right of entrance to

pubertas, atis- f. puberty, the age of maturity, manhood here adulthood

transeo- to transfer, here: to pass (the passing of time)

acerrima- here energetic, passionate, lively

misceo, miscere, miscui, mixtum- to combine

ad tempus- here for the occasion

eximius, a, um- exceptional, selected, distinguished- eximius here is in the comparative degree (neuter sing.)

autumnus, i- m. autumn

advenio, advenire, adveni, adventus- to come (esp. of time), to arrive, to come to

excogito, excogitare, excogitavi, excogitatus- to devise, to contrive, to invent

numerus, i- m. number

attractivus, a, um- interesting

hobbitus, i- m. a hobbit

Tuccus, i- m. Took

sonticus, a, um- important, serious

dies, ei- c. here the date

rumor, is- n. here gossip

Iustaqua, ae- f. Bywater

spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsus- to scatter, to sprinkle, here to spread

perlustro, perlustrare, perlustravi, perlustratus- to pass through

indoles, is- f. character (of a person)

rurusm- adv. Again

res, is- f. here topic

sermo, nis- m. speech, conversation

subito- adv. suddenly

recordatio, nis- f. here reminisces

auditores- m. pl listeners, hearers here an audience

attentioris, e- adj. attentive

Hammus, i- m. Ham

Gamsio, nis- m. Gamgee

Vetulus, i- m. the Gaffer

Fruticis Haderae- the Ivy Bush- locative case

taberna, ae- f. inn, taven

Iustaquus, a, um- adj. Bywater, relating to Bywater

auctoritas, tis- f. here authority

curo, curare, curavi, curatus – here to care for, to tend

hortus, i- m. garden

adiuvo, adiuvare, adiuvavi, adiuvatus- to help, to assist

Cavivirus, i- m. Holman

artus, us- m. joint (of the body)

rigidus, a, um- adj. stiff, rigid

fere- adv. here mostly

Sam, is- m. Sam, Samwise

uti familiariter- lit. to associate with familiarly here to be on good terms with

Bursamissus Ordo, -i -inis- m. Bagshot Row

signo, signare, signavi, signatus- to mark, to stamp

solummodo- adv. here just

infra (prep. + acc.)- below

suavis, e- pleasant, delightful, charming here nice

eloquens, ntis- eloquent, well-spoken

generosus-hobbitus, -i -i - m. a gentle-hobbit

declaro, declarare, declaravi, declaratum- to declare

verus, a, um- truthful

Hamfastus, i- m. Hamfast

consulto, consultare, consultavi, consultatum- to consult, to ask for advice

cultus, us- m. tilling, cultivation, tending here growing

holus, eris- n. a vegetable

stirps, is- f. the root (of a plant)

patata, ae- f. potato

nosco, noscere, novi, notus- to acknowledge, to recognize

auctor, ris- m. here an authority (on a subject)

vicinia, ae- f. neighbourhood

Nocus Senex, -i -icis- m. Old Noakes

dimidia, ae- f. half

sanguis, inis- m. here blood (in the sense of race), blood-relationship, family, race

Brandicaper, pri- m. Brandybuck

uxor, is- f. wife

longe- here far (off), a long way

Capriterra, ae- f. Buckland

miraculum, i- n. miracle, wonder

addo, addere, addidi, additum- here to say in addition

Tatula Bipes, -ae -dis- m. Daddy Twofoot

vicinus, i- m. neighbour, a next door neighbour

ripa, ae- f. bank (of a river)

pravus, a, um- here bad

Flumen Brandivinum, -inis -i - n. the Brandywine River

Silva Vetus, -ae -eris- f. the Old Forest

obscurus, a, um- dark, dim, gloomy

fabula, ae- f. story, tale

Tata, ae- m. Dad

genus, -eris- n. here breed

ut videtur- seemingly

conludo, conludere, conlusi, conlusum- to play with

ratis, is- f. boat

flumen, inis- n. river

utcumque res ceciderit- in any case here be that as it may

lepidus, a, um- nice

offendo, offendere, offendi, offenses- to meet, to encounter

denique- adv. indeed here after all

decens, decentis- decent

respectabilis, -is- respectable

Drogo, -nis- m. Drogo

narro, narrare, narravi, narratus- here to tell (about someone)

quoad- conj. until

mergo, mergere, mersi, mersus- here to drown

mersitit- a butchered form of mersit, translate as drownded

quippe- adv. of course

adamo, adamare, adamavi, adamatus- to fall in love with, to love passionately, to admire greatly here to have a passion for

desidero, desiderare, desideravi, desideratus- to desire, to want, to long for, to wish for

em- interj. Well

ita aiunt- so they say

ecce- behold! see! here you see

nubo, nubere, nupsi, nuptus- to marry

miser, misera, miserum- poor, miserable wretched

magistra, -ae- f. here Miss

Primula, -ae- f. Primula

consobrina, -ae- f. female cousin (on the mother’s side)

iuvenis, -is, -e- young

remotus, -a, -um- removed

semel- once

utroque modo- either way

sicut dicunt- as the saying goes

si me sentitis- if you follow me

Brandivini Villa, -ae- f. Brandy Hall

socer, -i- m. father-in-law

senex, -is- old

Gorbadocus, -i- m. Gorbadoc

matrimonium, -i- n. marriage

cibus, -i- m. food, fare, a meal

paro, parare, paravi, paratus- prepare, furnish, supply, provide

munificus, -a, um- bountiful, generous

convivium- here a feast, a banquet

naviculatus est- lit. he sailed a small vessel here he went out boating

uxor, -is- f. wife

merseruntunt- see note for mersitit

tantum- adv. hardly, only

infans, -tis- c. an infant, a baby

cena, -ae- f. dinner

lumen, -inis- n. light

luna, -ae- f. the moon

pondus, -eris- n. weight here specifically the weight of the body

demergo, demergere, demersi, demersus- to sink/submerge

percello -cellere -culi -culsum- to push, to strike

traho trahere traxi tractum- to pull along, to pull violently, to drag

Rufus, -i- m. Sandyman

molinarius, -i- m. a miller

laboriosus, a, um- (of things) toilsome, laborous, difficult here tricky

immotus, a, um- unmoved, still

pergo, pergere, perrexi, perrectus- go on, proceed

qualibet- adv anyway

orbo, orbare, orbavi, orbus- to deprive of parents, to be orphaned

relictus, a, um- abandoned, forsaken- here stranded

Capriterranus, i- m. Bucklander

educo, educare, educavi, educatus- to bring up, rear, educate, train

utique- anyhow

frequentissima- here “overcrowded”

leporarium, i- n. a warren

ducenti- lit. two hundred here a couple hundred

factum- here a deed

beneficus, a, um- kind, generous

refero, referre, retuli, relatus- to bring back

decens, -ntis- decent

suspicor, suspicari- to suspect, conjecture, suppose, surmise here to reckon

offensus, -us- m. an offense

amarus, a, um- unpleasant, nasty

adquiro, adquirere, adquisivi, adquisitus- to acquire, obtain, get

abscedo, abscedere, abscessi, abscessus- to go away, depart

abigo, abigere, abigere, abactus- to drive away, to send away

aspectus, -us- m. appearance

di eum ament- lit. may the gods love him here bless him!

subito- adv. suddenly

exhibeo, exhibere, exhibui, exhibitus- to produce, to present, to exhibit

documentum, -i- n. a document

bene- here properly


  1. Hello,

    This is quite an interesting project. I like the idea very much.

    However, it seems to me there are some very strange proposals in the glossary. Why keeping "Dwarf" when Latin uses "Nanus"?

    Why keeping "Baggins" and "Sackville" when these names should have a meaning in the translation? Having a look at the Index Tolkien wrote for translators of the LotR would be a help, I believe. You can find it in "The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide", by Hammond and Scull.

    Keeping "Hobbit" seems mandatory (though adapting the word for the Latin phonology might be a good idea), but no Latin would use the suffix "-ton" to mean "town". "Hobbitia" might do the trick.

    Finally, "tweenus" for "tween" just looks weird to me. A Latin would use "adulescens" / "adulescentia" or even "adulescentulus".

  2. In Tolkien's notes on "Nomencalture", he states that, in translations, the name Bag Eng and Baggins should contain the same element, and that this should recall the English word "bag". Might I suggest Latin "bursa" (from Greek byrsa, "hide, wineskin")? This would even let us maintain the alliterative quality of a name like Bilbo B. Perhaps something like "Bursonus" or "Bursianus" for "Baggins"?

    Likewise, "Bag End" is suppose to suggest the idea of a cul-de-sac; so what about a second element like "clausula" or "clausum" (in the sense of the common element "close" in English street names)?

  3. For Hobbit and Hobbiton ... Yeah, Tolkien indicated that "hobbit" is basically untranslatable -- though I have it in mind that I read something he wrote about how "hob(b)ito" would have been a sensible adaptation in Spanish. Accordingly, I'm inclined to suggest that "hob(b)itus" is the most sensible approach in Latin. Also, Tolkien states that "Hobbiton" should just be "hobbit" + the word for village. Accordingly, I would suggest something like "Vicus Hob(b)itorum".

  4. Sackville seems deceptively tricky. Conveniently, both elements in the English name are Latinate in origin: "sack" from Latin saccus (ultimately of Semitic origin, via Greek), and Latin villa. Turning them into a compound name (as Tolkien indicated translators should do) that works in Latin seems to me not as easy as it should be, however. Normally, something with the sense "village of a sack" might appear as something like "Villa Sacci" ... which leads us to something like "Villa Sacci-Bursonus" or "Villa Sacci-Bursianus" (depending on how one approaches the "Baggins issue"). That's a bit unwieldly -- but it does seem to approach Tolkien's intentions (IMO). Well, the name doesn't appear in the story _that_ often! :)

  5. Villa Sacci would be an accurate translation. However, there is one more trick: whereas the name Baggins is purely English in origin, "Sackville" is clearly of foreign import (Old French, actually). I believe we should be able to see this in the Latin version.

    Hence, I would try using a Greek name in this case: so perhaps "Persipolis" (I found funny that it suggests some link with the Persian capital. Very appropriate for such a snobby family.)

  6. If this ever gets that far: what to do with a place-name "Westerness" ? The "Lay of Earendil" in Book 2 Chapter 1 ("Many Meetings") is like to be a challenge - not to mention the verses from "The Fall of Gil-galad".